Handling dynamic web elements using Selenium

Dynamic web elements are those that change or update frequently in response to user actions or other events. Examples of dynamic elements include pop-up windows, drop-down menus, and loading spinners. Handling dynamic elements can be challenging in automated testing, as their behavior is often unpredictable. However, Selenium WebDriver offers a variety of techniques for identifying and interacting with dynamic web elements. In this article, we will explore several approaches for identifying and interacting with dynamic elements using Selenium WebDriver.

What do we understand by Dynamic Web Element?

Dynamic web elements are those web page elements that change their properties, state, or location on the page dynamically, i.e., during runtime. These changes may occur as a result of user input, system events, or other factors.

For example, an element may appear or disappear based on user interaction with the page, or its location or properties may change based on a particular condition or state of the application. Another example is an element whose ID or name changes dynamically with each page load, making it difficult to locate using traditional locators such as ID, name, or class name.

Dynamic web elements can pose a challenge to test automation using Selenium, as they may not always be available or visible when the test script tries to locate them. Therefore, it is essential to use appropriate techniques and strategies to handle dynamic web elements to ensure reliable and accurate test automation. Some of these techniques have been described in the previous answer.

Problems with Handling Dynamic Web Elements

Dynamic web elements can pose several challenges when automating tests with Selenium. Some of the common problems with handling dynamic elements are:

  1. Element identification: Dynamic elements can change their attributes, such as ID, name, class, or tag name, during runtime, making it difficult to locate them using traditional locators. This can result in element identification errors or inaccurate test results.
  2. Timing issues: Dynamic elements may take time to load on the page, or they may disappear or change after a certain time period. If the test script is not synchronized properly, it may fail to locate or interact with these elements, leading to false test results.
  3. Element state changes: Some dynamic elements, such as dropdowns, radio buttons, or checkboxes, may have their states changed dynamically based on user input or system events. This can cause the test script to fail if it does not account for these state changes in its logic.
  4. Element visibility: Dynamic elements may be hidden or overlaid by other elements on the page, making them difficult to interact with. In such cases, the test script may need to use advanced techniques such as JavaScript injection or mouse actions to interact with these elements.
  5. Testing in different environments: Dynamic elements may behave differently in different environments, such as browsers, operating systems, or devices. This can lead to inconsistent test results, and the test script may need to be adapted to handle these differences.

How do we handle dynamic elements using Selenium?

To handle dynamic web elements using Selenium, we can use the following techniques:

  1. Using explicit waits: We can use explicit waits to wait for the element to appear or change its state. We can define a timeout period and a condition to check for the element’s visibility or availability. This can help to avoid timing issues and element identification errors.
  2. Using relative locators: Selenium 4 introduced the concept of relative locators, which allows us to locate elements relative to another element. This can be useful when the target element’s attributes are changing dynamically, but its position relative to another element remains constant.
  3. Using regular expressions: We can use regular expressions to match a part of an element’s attribute value that is constant, while the rest of the value is changing dynamically. For example, we can use a regex to match a partial ID or class name of an element.
  4. Using XPath axes: XPath provides several axes, such as following, preceding, parent, child, and sibling, which can be used to navigate the DOM tree and locate elements based on their relationship with other elements. This can be helpful when the target element’s attributes are changing dynamically, but its position in the DOM tree remains constant.
  5. Using JavaScript injection: We can use JavaScript injection to interact with dynamic elements that are hidden or overlaid by other elements. This involves executing a JavaScript code snippet to manipulate the target element’s properties or trigger an event.
  6. Using test data-driven approach: We can use test data-driven approach by providing test data as input to the test script to test various states of dynamic elements. This approach can help to identify and handle dynamic elements that change their states based on user input or system events.

Overall, handling dynamic elements requires a combination of different techniques and strategies to ensure reliable and accurate test automation with Selenium.

Techniques to handle dynamic web elements using Selenium WebDriver

  1. Understanding the DOM: The Document Object Model (DOM) is a tree-like structure that represents the elements of a web page. Understanding the structure of the DOM is essential for identifying and interacting with dynamic elements. By navigating the DOM, we can locate elements based on their relationship to other elements or their position within the tree.
  2. Waiting for elements: One common approach for handling dynamic elements is to wait for them to appear on the page before interacting with them. Selenium WebDriver provides several methods for waiting, including implicit and explicit waits. Implicit waits are set at the beginning of a test and apply to all elements. Explicit waits, on the other hand, can be applied to specific elements and allow us to wait for specific conditions, such as the presence of an element or its visibility.
  3. Using dynamic locators: Dynamic locators are locators that change in response to dynamic content. For example, the ID or name of an element may change when the page is updated. To handle this, we can use other attributes, such as class name, CSS selector, or XPath, to locate the element. Additionally, we can use regular expressions or partial matches to match elements based on a portion of their attribute value.
  4. Handling pop-up windows: Pop-up windows are a common example of dynamic elements. To handle pop-up windows, we can use the getWindowHandles() method to retrieve a list of all open windows and switch to the appropriate window using the switchTo() method. Once we have switched to the correct window, we can interact with its elements as usual.
  5. Interacting with dynamic forms: Dynamic forms, such as those that expand or collapse based on user input, can also be a challenge for automated testing. One approach is to submit the form and wait for the resulting page to load before continuing the test. Alternatively, we can use JavaScript to simulate user input and trigger the form’s behavior.


Handling dynamic web elements is an important aspect of automated testing. By understanding the structure of the DOM, using waiting strategies, and utilizing dynamic locators and other techniques, we can effectively handle dynamic content in our tests. With Selenium WebDriver, we have a powerful toolset for identifying and interacting with even the most complex dynamic elements.

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